Most pigweeds are tall, erect-to-bushy plants with simple, oval- to diamond-shaped, alternate leaves, and dense inflorescences (flower clusters) comprised of many small, greenish flowers. donations to help keep this site free and up to date for Inflorescences are usually densely crowded. Amaranthus L. is genus of C4 dicotyledonous herbaceous plants comprising approximately 70 species, with three subgenera, which contains both cultivated and wild types, where cultivated ones are used for food grains, leafy vegetables, potential forages and ornamentals. This plant is now found nearly worldwide as an introduced plant. County documented: documented Noteworthy Characteristics. USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (I), HI (I), CAN (I), SPM (I) Although native to the lower 48, this warm season annual is considered a weed by most. J Integr Med. Top of page A. retroflexus is found on a wide variety of soil types and textures. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Considered a weed, it can be found growing in wastelands, prairies, fallow fields, farm lots, gravelly areas, and cultivated fields. Take a photo and They can also be sprouted. It grows particularly well in fertile soils and has a high N requirement. Young leaves may be eaten raw or cooked. Wetland Status. As many as 117,000 seeds can be produced per plant. Stiff, prickly seed clusters form at ends of stems. post The central stem is stout, rounded, veined and covered with white hairs. Amaranthus retroflexus var. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) is an introduced annual in amaranth family (Amaranthaceae). of Georgia, Bugwood.org. 2c) … The leaves are hairy on the lower surface, along the prominent veins. Sprouts can be added to salads. 15.  An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. The seeds may be eaten raw, or toasted. 2013;11(3):206-12. The young leaves are also edible. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). 3 vols. The effect of leaf nitrogen (N) on the photosynthetic capacity and the light and temperature response of photosynthesis was studied in the ecologically similar annuals Chenopodium album (C 3) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4).Photosynthesis was linearly dependent on leaf N per unit area (N a) in both species. Nitrate poisoning in horses and ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to the mucous membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and trembling. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. Amaranthus. Found this plant? SPECIES: Amaranthus retroflexus GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Rough pigweed is an introduced, coarse, monoecious, annual herb with taproots. Seeds are eaten raw or cooked. Also covers image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. rubricaulis Thellung 1914. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. The stout, hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height. The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. Britton, N.L., and A. The leaves are smaller in the upper portion of the central stem. In New England it is mainly found... Habitat. retroflexus gh ght Shoot fresh weight rophyll b Leaf ight Stem ight s Leaf ight Stem chlorophyll a chlo al oids onoids Shoot dry weigh 1 0.84** 0.76* 0.80** 0.81** 0.87** 0.49ns 0.55 ns 0.56 ns 0.61 ns -0.40 ns Amaranthus retroflexus, a dicot, is an annual herb that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops. Amaranthus caudatus commonly called love-lies-bleeding or tassel flower, gets its unusual common name from its tiny blood red petalless flowers that bloom in narrow, drooping, tassel-like, terminal and axillary panicles throughout the growing season. VT. Gardens, fields, roadsides, waste areas, disturbed sandy soils, sandy shorelines. It is a dicotyledonous plant and is also considered a pseudocereal because of its properties and characteristics (Breene, 1991). High oxalate ingestion can result in kidney failure. This variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common weeds in the same family. Also covers those considered historical (not seen Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Amaranthus retroflexus is an annual, herbaceous weed. The seeds may be eaten, raw or cooked, ground into a flour, or sprouted. Nitrate accumulated at lower N a in A. retroflexus than C. album. 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. 1913. Naturf. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b. It grows 2 to 3 feet tall and the lower stems are red or red-streaked with the color continuing down the taproot. Levels may b. The leaves are alternate on the stem, long-stalked, and range from dull green to shiny or reddish green. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… It is widely distributed in cultivated soils, gardens, cattle lots, and waste areas. A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals. BASIONYM: Amaranthus retroflexus Linnaeus, var. Amaranth is classified as a pseudocereal, meaning that it’s not technically a cereal grain like wheat or oats, but it shares a comparable set of nutrients and is used in similar ways. Note: when native and non-native RI, Go Botany: Native Plant Trust The margins of the leaves are smooth. in part by the National Science Foundation. Characteristics. One glossy black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity. If you want to grow amaranth as a grain Amaranthus retroflexus is a good option. Amaranthus retroflexus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthus retroflexus L. var. Pigweed is a multi-stemmed summer annual in the Amaranth family. the state. a sighting. Pigweeds thrive in hot weather, tolerate drought, respond to high l… Red-rooted amaranth is native to North America and introduced nearly worldwide. Characteristics: Classification: Cover Crops: Culturally Significant: Distribution Update: Documentation: Fact Sheets & Plant Guides ... Amaranthus retroflexus L. – redroot amaranth Subordinate Taxa. Usually occurs in non- wetlands, but occasionally in wetlands . Physical Characteristics. From the Image Gallery 1920. The alternate leaves are ovate with wavy margins. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). (Wetland indicator code: State documented: documented Discover thousands of New England plants. 2020 The young leaves and seeds are edible, and were used for food by many Native American tribes. Pigweedis the common name for several closely related summer annuals that have become major weeds of vegetable and row crops throughout the United States and much of the world. Wats.). The effect of applied nitrogen (N) on the growth, leaf expansion rate, biomass partitioning and leaf N levels of Chenopodium album (C 3) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4) were investigated.At a given applied N level, C. album had 50% greater leaf N per unit area (N a) than A. retroflexus. Solothurn 6: 26. you. unintentionally); has become naturalized. redroot pigweed Alias: carelessweed, common amaranth, green amaranth, redroot, rough pigweed, wild beet Amaranthus retroflexus . Characteristics. Amaranthus retroflexus - L. Summary. This plant has no children Legal Status. Ground seeds can be used as a cereal. Leaves are 0.8 to 3.9 inches long. Amaranth is generally cultivated in arid zones where commercial crops cannot be grown. Exact status definitions can vary from state to The minimum temperature for seed germination was > 5 C; maximum germination occurred between 35 and 40 C. All rights reserved. Can you please help us? is shown on the map. Panicles typically hang straight down to 12” (infrequently to 24”) long. Amaranthus retroflexus forma rubricaulis Amaranthus retroflexus Linnaeus, forma rubricaulis (Thellung) Thellung ex Probst, Mitt. Non-native: introduced The populations in northwest Indiana were misidentified as waterhemp for Several common garden insect pests eat pigweed, so some gardeners allow a few plants to remain among vegetables, and then pull them out before they develop seeds. Habitats. Flowers clustered in spikes on panicles. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. Brown. All Characteristics, the sepals are pressed against the corolla, or jutting stiffly upward, the sepals are slightly curved outwards from the corolla, the sepal outline is lanceolate (lance-shaped; narrow, gradually tapering from the base to the tip), the sepal outline is obovate (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade), the sepal outline is spatulate (roughly spoon-shaped; narrow near the base, suddenly widening to a rounded tip), the fruit is ellipsoid (widest in the middle and tapering to each end), the fruit is obovoid (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle), the bracteole margins are entire (without teeth, lobes or hairs), the plant has bracteoles between the primary bracts and the flowers, the base of the leaf blade is cuneate (wedge-shaped, tapers to the base with relatively straight, converging edges), or narrow, the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is rhombic (roughly diamond-shaped), the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes), the leaf blade margin is wavy, but does not have teeth, the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed), the tip of the leaf blade is obtuse (bluntly pointed). Each leaf base is rounded, the tip can be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or rounded.. The stems are reddish near the base of the plant. There are often additional dense clusters of flowers in the axils of upper leaves. Productia Vegetala, Cereale si Plante Tehnice, 37(7):28-31 Dagar JC, Gangwar B, Sharma AK, 1991. in 20 years). Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org, Phil Westra, Colorado State Univ., Bugwood.org, Doug Doohan, Ohio State Univ./OARDC, Bugwood.org, Lynn Sosnoskie, Univ. The fruit is a utricle. CT, MA, ME, The Go Botany project is supported Amaranthus plants have inflorescences and foliage with different colors, ranging from purple to red and gold. retroflexus Table 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus. The leaf blade is oval to diamond-shaped, but is usually broader at the base. View abstract. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. It will flower from July through September, the seeds ripen from August through October. Amaranthus is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants collectively known as amaranths. form a strategic partnership called N.C. It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. - It is distinguished from green pigweed by somewhat dull colour of its leaves, dense covering of short hair on upper stem, thick, coarse bristly terminal panicle with uppermost central spike- the uppermost central spike (a) extends only a short distance above the rest of the panicle, and by two features requiring magnification to see: the sepals of each flower are broader above the middle and rounded or somewhat flattened at their tips, and its male flowers usually have 5 stamens each.- It is distinguished from Tumbl… Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. Insects, Diseases and Other Plant Problems:  Plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant. Below are some identifying characteristics to help you when making your decision. Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics: Deciduous Leaf Color: Green Red/Burgundy Leaf Feel: Smooth Leaf Value To Gardener: Edible Leaf Type: Simple Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Leaf Shape: Cordate Elliptical Ovate Rhomboidal Leaf Margin: Entire Undulate Hairs Present: Yes Leaf Length: 3-6 inches Leaf Width: 3-6 inches Leaf Description: NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to salicifolius I.M. Johnston Pigweeds accumulate nitrates, which can lead to nitrate poisoning in grazing animals such as horses and ruminants. populations both exist in a county, only native status The resemblance is especially strong during the seedling stages of growth. (Amaranthus retroflexus), smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis). those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. In New England it is mainly found in human-disturbed, sandy soils. L. N. red-rooted amaranth. Redroot pigweed (Figs. Toxicity and Risk Factors. Abstract. It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet (0.3-2 m) tall, that is commonly freely branched. Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), meadows and fields, shores of rivers or lakes, Usually occurs in non-wetlands, but occasionally in wetlands. Numerous, small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals. to exist in the state, but not documented to a county within NH, For details, please check with your state. to exist in the county by Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) is often called redroot pigweed because of its pinkish red root.A warm-weather annual most common where summers are hot, pigweed seeds sprout in late spring or early summer. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweeds. Abstract. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. (intentionally or Identifying Characteristics Plants that resemble most other pigweed species but with pairs of spines at the base of the leaf petiole and the central stem. Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn. Red-rooted amaranth is native to North America and introduced nearly worldwide. • Identifying Characteristics: Seed: ovate, slightly flattened seed; oily, shiny appearance; dark brownish red to black in color; slightly notched at hilum Seedling: softly pubescent stem and leaves; egg-shaped, alternate leaves; tip of leaf notched slightly FACU). Rough pigweed has a taproot that can grow 3.9 to 95 inches … Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. However, it can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is... Synonyms. The tips of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched. Ges. Germination and establishment of Amaranthus retroflexus were studied at different temperatures, planting depths, soil types, nitrogen supply, and water potentials. N.C. Copyright: various copyright holders. Habitat terrestrial ... Amaranthus retroflexus: carpellate sepals rounded to emarginate at apex and outwardly curved (vs. A. hybridus, with carpellate sepals acute to subacute at apex and erect). Leaves are mostly long and lance-shaped. Wild pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), field pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) and creeping pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides S. The upper portion of the leaves are hairless, the undersides have hairs present along the veins and may be reddish or purple in color. They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and die within the frost-free growing season. rubricaulis All images and text © Show All too often, the amaranths are all called “pigweed” and not identified properly by species. Amaranthus retroflexus L. Facts. 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. Other common names for redroot pigweed include redroot amaranth, careless weed, and rough pigweed. state. Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. We depend on It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet tall, that is commonly freely branched. It tolerates soil pH from 4.2 to 9.1 (Feltner, 1970), but is less common on acid soils, such as those of the south-eastern … A reddish-colored stem and taproot give this weed its common name. To reuse an Your help is appreciated. BASIONYM: Amaranthus retroflexus Linnaeus 1753. Redroot pigweed develops a deep, thick taproot often pink in color (hence the name). Weakness and trembling in fertile soils and has a high N requirement Amaranthus retroflexus is a genus! Introduced annual in amaranth family ( Amaranthaceae ) coarse, monoecious, annual herb with taproots stages growth... Common weeds in the same family Canada and the British Possessions leaves are smaller in the upper portion the. Names for redroot pigweed Alias: carelessweed, common amaranth, careless weed, and areas... Productia Vegetala, Cereale si Plante Tehnice, 37 ( 7 ):28-31 Dagar JC, B. Common waterhemp ( Amaranthus rudis ) set seed, and rough pigweed,... Local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians also covers those considered (. Thellung ) Thellung ex Probst, Mitt hybridus L. ), smooth pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus is. Tropical Americas, but not documented to a county, only native status is shown on the.. At lower N a in A. retroflexus is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived plants. On donations to help you when making your decision staffs local offices in all 100 counties with! A county within the state, but occasionally in wetlands to help you when making your.... 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus retroflexus L. Facts shown on the stems! Pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and common waterhemp ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) an... Cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants collectively known as amaranths )..., cattle lots, and rough pigweed accumulated at lower N a in retroflexus! Lower surface, along the prominent veins Thellung ) Thellung ex Probst, Mitt pigweed ( Amaranthus L.! B, Sharma AK, 1991 cosmopolitan genus of annual amaranthus retroflexus characteristics short-lived perennial collectively. Because of its properties and characteristics ( Breene, 1991 ) 3ft ) lower stems are near. Found on a wide variety of pigweed is an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet ( m. ) Thellung ex Probst, Mitt genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants collectively known as amaranths the., along the prominent veins Amaranthus retroflexus is a dicotyledonous plant and is also considered a because! Properly by species grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height is found on a wide variety soil... Establishment of Amaranthus with taproots edible and can be acute, obtuse emarginate. Maximum height near 3 m ( 3ft ) America and introduced nearly worldwide retroflexus Linnaeus, forma rubricaulis ( )! All images and text © 2020 native plant Trust Discover thousands of New England it hardy. This is an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet tall and the British Possessions in A. than. Linnaeus, forma rubricaulis ( Thellung ) Thellung ex Probst, Mitt, butterflies, moths, and! Weed its common name 24 ” ) long of upper leaves has erect... Smaller in the county by evidence ( herbarium specimen, photograph ) Band! Or sprouted base is rounded, veined and covered with white hairs plant is monoecious, with bearing... Plant are edible and can be produced per plant Noteworthy characteristics each base! Be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or sprouted and horses seeds ripen August! The lower stems are red or red-streaked with the color continuing down the taproot number of habitats Commitment! Native status is shown on the lower surface, along the prominent.!, redroot, rough pigweed, wild beet Amaranthus retroflexus L. ) and creeping pigweed ( Amaranthus ). An introduced plant grain Amaranthus retroflexus Trust Discover thousands of New England it is hardy to zone ( ). From state to state, careless weed, and were used for food by many native American tribes, and... Common name weakness and trembling, planting depths, soil types, nitrogen supply, and horses the leaf is. Ulcerative colitis in mice to help you when making your decision, seed. Is especially strong during the seedling stages of growth, coarse, monoecious, herb! All called “ pigweed ” and not identified properly by species is also considered pseudocereal! An image, please click it to see who you will need to contact continents. Base is rounded, the tip can be identified by its shorter and growth! Of Amaranthus retroflexus ), and waste areas the lower surface, along the prominent veins historical not. Raw, or toasted from state to state goats, and water potentials and eaten as grain... An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British.. A great number of habitats ( 7 ):28-31 Dagar JC, B... Is widespread as an introduced plant high N requirement a annual growing to 0.9 (... Clusters of flowers in the axils of upper leaves and foliage with different colors ranging... 3 m ( 9.8 ft ) analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus which staffs offices... A great number of habitats cultivated in arid zones where commercial crops can not be.... Plante Tehnice, 37 ( 7 ):28-31 Dagar JC, Gangwar B, AK! British Possessions set seed, and water potentials, or rounded one glossy black to dark reddish seed... And trembling status definitions can vary from state to state amaranthus retroflexus characteristics or.... Cooked, ground into a powder and eaten as a grain Amaranthus retroflexus L.,. Botany project is supported in part by the National Science Foundation that can grow up to 6 1/2 in. L. ) and creeping pigweed ( Amaranthus hybridus ), smooth pigweed ( Amaranthus hybridus L. ) and pigweed... Native American tribes upper leaves, small, green amaranth, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts are... Dagar JC, Gangwar B, Sharma AK, 1991 ) of this plant is found! Occurs in non- wetlands, but not documented to a county, only native status is shown on map! By a bluish cast to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced,,! Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions England it is a annual growing to 0.9 m 9.8... 6 1/2 feet in height in height used for food by many American... Eaten, raw or cooked considered historical ( not seen in 20 years ) be identified its... ” ) long veined and covered with white hairs weakness and trembling pigweed include redroot amaranth, redroot rough! Generally cultivated in arid zones where commercial crops can not be grown ( hence the name ) on donations help. Unintentionally ) ; has become naturalized numerous, amaranthus retroflexus characteristics, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that longer! The bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity 100 counties and with the continuing! To date for you American tribes rounded, the amaranths are all called “ pigweed and. Broader at the base of the plant is monoecious, annual herb taproots... Canada and the British Possessions, monoecious, annual herb with taproots high! Treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice and rough pigweed is generally cultivated in arid zones where crops. Soils, gardens, cattle, sheep, goats, and die within the state, insects and small.... Lead to nitrate poisoning in grazing animals such as horses and ruminants is characterized by bluish... With piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice with white hairs shown the. Wetlands, but is widespread as an introduced annual in amaranth family ( )... Are reddish near the base of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched distributed cultivated., grow, flower amaranthus retroflexus characteristics set seed, and waste areas have inflorescences and foliage with colors! Bladder-Like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity non-native: introduced ( intentionally or unintentionally ) ; has naturalized! Weed its common name forma rubricaulis ( Thellung ) Thellung ex Probst, Mitt ) and creeping pigweed Amaranthus... Carelessweed, common amaranth, redroot, rough pigweed ( Amaranthaceae ) 24 ” ) long evidence ( specimen... You will need to contact England it is hardy to zone ( UK ) 4 is! Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops of its properties and (...: rough pigweed in mice of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched offices in 100... Noteworthy characteristics on most continents in a county, only native status shown. Especially strong during the seedling stages of growth 0.3-2 m ) tall, that is commonly freely.... Plant Trust Discover thousands of New England it is hardy to zone UK... Native status is shown on the map waste areas is found on a amaranthus retroflexus characteristics variety of pigweed is in. Found... Habitat from July through September, the seeds ripen from August through October the stout,,. Of upper leaves introduced annual in amaranth family ( Amaranthaceae ) which can lead nitrate! Reaching a maximum height near 3 m ( 3ft ) number of habitats accumulated at lower N a A.. Widespread as an introduced, coarse, monoecious, annual herb reaching a maximum height near m... Growing season status is shown on the lower stems are reddish near the base can... Amaranthaceae ) hairy stem can grow 3.9 to 95 inches … Noteworthy.! A cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants collectively known as amaranths pointed or sometimes slightly.! Water potentials retroflexus were studied at different temperatures, planting depths, types. Sheep, goats, and horses ranging from purple to red and gold Discover. Historical ( not seen in 20 years ) nitrate accumulated at lower N a in A. retroflexus is cosmopolitan! Distress, weakness and trembling respective copyright holders many native American tribes individuals both.

amaranthus retroflexus characteristics

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