80.9 years Understanding these factors about some specific locations, help individuals from other locations truly define other locations. The Icelanders' attitude towards the Jews has mostly been neutral, although in the early 20th century the intellectual Steinn Emilsson was influenced by anti-Semitic ideas while studying in Germany. In addition, in the country there are a number of Lutheran free churches, including the Reykjavík Free Church (2.77%), the Hafnarfjörður Free Church (1.96%) and the Independent Lutheran Congregation (0.92%). Population by membership in religious and life stance organizations in Iceland 2020 Published by Statista Research Department, Apr 27, 2020 The biggest religious organization in Iceland … Bishop Palladius was in charge of the development of the Icelandic Lutheran church in those early years. 39.88% (male 68,579/female 66,899) There are, however, a Sri Chinmoy centre, Ananda Marga, and other organisations of meditation and philosophy. Anonymous asked: what are Iceland's religious demographics, how do Icelanders feel about religion? [1] It is a reinstitution of the Sumerian religion, and Zuists worship An (the supreme God of Heaven), Ki (the Earth), as well as Enlil and Enki, Nanna (the Moon) and Utu (the Sun), Inanna (Venus), Marduk (Jupiter), Nabu (Mercury), Nergal (Mars), Ninurta (Saturn), and Dumuzi. If you think religion belongs to the past and we live in a new age of reason, you need to check out the facts: Iceland sent a delegation, belonging to the Christian faction, to obtain the release of the hostages and promise the conversion of the country to Christianity. This may have been assisted by the Icelandic language's literary tradition that predates the island's conversion to Christianity, the Eddas and the Sagas, which are well known by most Icelanders, providing an unbroken link with the pagan past. There are between 15 and 25 Sikh families in Iceland. This is the population pyramid for Iceland. The ordinance was accepted in Skálholt, but rejected by Jón Arason in Hólar. (2016 est. [6], In the wake of the 2008 Icelandic financial crisis, many Icelanders went to work abroad. Although the trade monopoly ended in 1787, Icelanders could not trade freely with other countries until 1855. In 1584 the first Icelandic translation of the Bible was published. [1], Islam is the religion of a small minority in Iceland. This article is about the demographic features of the population of Iceland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Other people worshipped Freyr, as attested in the Víga-Glúms saga. [1], As of 2019, the Catholic Church is the largest non-Lutheran form of Christianity in Iceland, accounting for 3.92% of the population, many of whom are immigrant Poles. Church manuals and hymnals were in bad Danish translations, and new schools had to be set up in cathedral towns to train the Lutheran clergy. … The Danish scholar of religion Margit Warburg speculates that the Icelandic people are culturally more open to religious innovation. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Church of God Ministry of Jesus Christ International, Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, Scandinavians began to arrive in larger numbers, Reformation in Denmark–Norway and Holstein, "Aðskilnaður ríkis og kirkju: Upphaf almennrar umræðu 1878–1915", "Populations by religious and life stance organizations", "Constitution of the Republic of Iceland (No. Hanna Ragnarsdóttir, “Competences for Active Communication and Participation in Diverse Societies: Views of Young People in Iceland.” In, https://px.hagstofa.is/pxen/pxweb/en/Ibuar/Ibuar__mannfjoldi__3_bakgrunnur__Faedingarland/MAN12103.px/?rxid=92af00af-93d6-4d06-9be0-3a88f29ad64f, "mtDNA and the Islands of the North Atlantic: Estimating the Proportions of Norse and Gaelic Ancestry", "mtDNA and the Origin of the Icelanders: Deciphering Signals of Recent Population History". Christianism was now the official religion in Iceland by 999-1000 AD. However, some Christians had acquired high positions in the goðorð system and therefore considerable power in the Althing. Jón Arason was consequently outlawed by the king, he was arrested with two of his sons, and all three were executed in November 1550. A few years later, these provisions allowing private cults were abolished. As of 2019, 80.17% of the Icelanders were affiliated with some religion officially recognised by the government and listed in the civil registry, 13.02% were members of some unspecified other religions not registered within the civil registry, and 6.96% were unaffiliated with any religion. There began a slow increase in the 19th century, and by 1901 the population had risen to nearly 80,000. They founded Ásatrúarfélagið (the Ásatrú Society) and asked the Ministry of Justice and Ecclesiastical Affairs to recognise the new organisation, giving its chief priest the same legal status as a Christian pastor. When Scandinavians began to arrive in larger numbers, the anchorites left of their own or were driven out. 65 years and over: 0–14 years: Article 64: No one may lose any of his civil or national rights on account of his religion, nor may anyone refuse to perform any generally applicable civil duty on religious grounds. For instance, Aud the Deep-Minded was among the baptised and devout Christians and she established a Christian cross on a hill, where she prayed; her kinsmen later regarded the site as sacred, and they built an Ásatrú temple there. The population of Iceland since settlement times has probably wavered between about 30,000 and 80,000. [11][12] There is some evidence that racism is not as acute in Iceland as in neighbouring countries. [10] Among the first settlers, the vast majority were worshippers of the Germanic gods, and organised Christianity probably died out in one or two generations. This number is composed of 10 digits, whereof the first six are made up of the individual's birth date in the format DDMMYY. These developments set the stage for the urbanisation that was to follow in the twentieth century. [1], Zuism in 2019 was the religion of about 0.45% of the Icelandic population. In all, this means nearly 25% of the population are either not a part of any religion, are decidedly humanist, or hew to faiths that are not officially defined or recognised. Instead, Denmark bought the fish caught from Iceland at below world market prices. Iceland, a Nordic island nation located between the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans, is an interesting country of stark contrasts. Official statistics begin in 1703, since when the population of Iceland has grown from 50,358 to 348,580 in December 2017.[3]. 85.3 years 0.88 males: 1 female [1] Catholics are organised in the Diocese of Reykjavík, led by the bishop Dávid Bartimej Tencer (1963–), O.F.M. Iceland then remained officially catholic until the reformation era. The former First Lady of Iceland, Dorrit Moussaieff, is a Bukharian Jew and is likely the most significant Jewish woman in Icelandic history. 83.0 years A person who is not a member of any religious association shall pay to the University of Iceland the dues that he would have had to pay to such an association, if he had been a member. [7], The religion was named Goðatrú or Ásatrú, "truth of the gods". The number of Baháʼí Local Spiritual Assemblies in Iceland is the highest, compared to the total population of the country, in all of Europe. Most Finns are Christians. 20.4% (male 35,418/female 33,887) Among the first Lutherans there was Oddur Gottskálksson, who had converted to Lutheranism while living on the continent for many years. Iceland has a long history of farm wor… Until the end of 1985 figures on migration were processed once per year, thus all persons who moved residence over the course of … [8] In the mid-1990s, 95% of Icelanders had parents of Icelandic origin, and 2% of Icelandic inhabitants were first-generation immigrants (born abroad with both parents foreign-born and all grandparents foreign-born). [20], In 1972, four men proposed to found an organisation for the revitalisation of the pre-Christian northern Germanic religion. [21] Theosophy was introduced in Iceland around 1900, and in 1920 the Icelandic Theosophists formally organised as an independent branch of the international Theosophical movement, though within the fold of the Lutheran belief and led by a Lutheran pastor, Séra Jakob Kristinsson. 99% of the nation's inhabitants live in urban areas (localities with populations greater than 200) and 60% live in the Capital Region. 96,8% of Icelanders are registered in in a religion. Large numbers of Icelanders began to emigrate from Iceland in the 1850s. The three Islamic organisations of Iceland are the Muslim Association of Iceland, the Muslim Cultural Centre of Iceland and the Islamic Cultural Centre of Iceland, respectively with 552, 394, and 188 members in 2019. Gissur was only 25 years old and it was difficult for him to maintain power, especially as he was opposed by the clergy and even by the old bishop. Iceland seems to be on its way to becoming an even more secular nation, according to a new poll. The Danish king maintained a monopoly in trade with Iceland from 1602 until 1855, which made the price of fish artificially low – the price of fish was higher in Britain – and artificially raised the price of agricultural products. Together they comprised about 0.31% of the population of Iceland. Almost 5% of people practice ásatrú, the traditional Norse religion. [23] This church has kept the principle of funds' redistribution among members, which is called amargi. Iceland is not as religious as statistics might indicate. [1] It was introduced by the American Amelia Collins (later recognized as a prominent Baháʼí Hand of the Cause) in 1924; the first Icelander who converted was a woman named Hólmfríður Árnadóttir. [28], There are very few Baptists in Iceland, members of churches such as the First Baptist Church and the Emmanuel Baptist Church (both with 35 members in 2019[1]) and the Upstairs Room (Loftstofan) Baptist Church. Collectively they accounted for 0.41% of the Icelanders as of 2019. As of 1 January 2020, the population of Iceland was estimated to be 340,077 people. It has been estimated that around 17,000 Icelanders emigrated to North America in the period 1870–1914, with some 2,000 people returning to Iceland. Bishop Øgmundur, now old and almost blind, chose Gissur Einarsson as his successor. The Icelandic thing developed peculiar characteristics; in place of the loyalty to a holy king, the Icelanders established the loyalty to a law code, first composed by Úlfljót who studied Norwegian laws. The country is in very good economic standing with a very low unemployment rate. Following trade liberalisation, there was a substantial increase in fish exports to Britain, which led to an increase in the number of sailing ships used in fishing, introduced for the first time in 1780. 33, 17 June 1944, as amended 30 May 1984, 31 May 1991, 28 June 1995 and 24 June 1999)", "Fjöldi meðlima í trúfélögum og öðrum samanburðarhópum 1990 - 2016", "Yfirlýsing frá Ágústi Arnari Ágústsssyni, forstöðumanni trúfélagsins Zuism", "Icelanders flock to religion revering Sumerian gods and tax rebates", "100 Years of the Baháʼí Faith in Europe", "Iceland and the Jewish Question until 1940", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Religion_in_Iceland&oldid=991123259, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 11:16. However… Zuism, unlike other religions, promised to share among its adherents the money it receives from the tax, so that in a few weeks thousands of people joined the church. Then Christian III ordered the dissolution of the monasteries. Reykjavík Free Church building in the foreground, and the Hallgrímskirkja in the background. 55–64: The number of Hindus in Iceland is unknown. There were 652 icelanders registered in the Buddhist Association in 2007. There are so many factors that truly define and properly explain the history of a specific location. [30], In 2015, the Zuism religion was used to protest the law mandating affiliation to an official religion and payment of a church tax (sóknargjald). When Lutheranism became the state religion of Denmark and Norway under king Christian III, the king tried to convert Iceland too. Religions in Finland. [15] Despite the official Christianisation, the old Germanic religion persisted for long time, as proven by the literature produced by Snorri Sturluson—himself a Christian—and other authors in the 13th century, who composed the Prose Edda and the Poetic Edda. The Orthodox Church of Finland is the second largest religious community. Icelands total population was 307,672 and about 80% of the population is registered in the Lutheran Church of Iceland. 1.01 males: 1 female Atheism is the rejection of religion and having no faith in a god while agnosticism is being uncertain. The WIN-Gallup International “Religion and Atheism Index” ranked Iceland moderately high in terms of the proportion of self-identified atheists in the population at … [7], The first Icelanders, though accustomed to a society in which the monarch was essential for religious life, did not establish a new monarchy in the colony, but rather a yearly assembly of free men, the Althing. total population: Iceland was founded more than 1,000 years ago during the Viking age of exploration and settled by a mixed Norse and Celtic population. It is similar to the Norwegian Humanist Association, and like it is recognised as a life stance community by the state since 2013, and therefore can receive funds from the state. There are no synagogues or prayer houses in the country. [17], Lutheran pamphlets were introduced in Iceland through trade with Germany. Iceland then turned its eyes to Lutheranism back in 1550. [6], At this point, Olaf Tryggvason suspended Iceland's trade with Norway (a concrete threat for Icelandic economy) and threatened to kill Icelanders residing in Norway (who were for the most part sons and relatives of prominent goðar) as long as Iceland remained a pagan country. In 1536, he became assistant at the Skálholt bishopric, though he still did not formally embrace Lutheranism. Recent DNA analysis suggests that around 66 percent of the male settler-era population was of Norse ancestry, whereas the female population was 60 percent Celtic. [1], In 2019, 65.15% of the Icelanders were registered as members of the national Church of Iceland. [36], Siðmennt (short name of the Icelandic Ethical Humanist Association) is the largest organisation promoting secular humanism in Iceland. Among the other proselytisers, King Olaf of Norway sent the Icelandic native Stefnir Thorgilsson in 995–996 and the Saxon priest Thangbrand in 997–999. Religions: This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population. Less than half of Icelanders claim they are religious and more than 40% of young Icelanders identify as atheist. All living Icelanders, as well as all foreign citizens with permanent residence in Iceland, have a personal identification number (kennitala) identifying them in the National Registry. Contrary to most European countries, this promotion campaign was successful in Iceland, because emigration was only just about to start from there and Icelandic emigrants had no relatives in the United States to help them take the first steps". [18], The most important figure in early Icelandic Lutheranism was, however, Gissur Einarsson, who during a period of study in Germany learned about the Reformation. [1], The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints had 162 registered members in Iceland as of 2019. When he went back to Iceland, he became the secretary of the bishop of Skálholt and translated the New Testament into the Icelandic language. [2] Freedom of religion has been granted to the Icelanders since 1874. [10], Research on the experience of immigrants to Iceland is in its early days. [1], As of 2019, 0.18% of the Icelanders were registered as members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. 25–54 years: A large part of the population remain members of the Church of Iceland, but are actually irreligious and atheists, as demonstrated by demoscopic analyses. See also. [20] In the 19th and early 20th centuries, religious life in Iceland, still mostly within the Christian establishment, was influenced by the spread of spiritualist beliefs. Religions: Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland (official) 67.2%, Roman Catholic 3.9%, Reykjavik Free Church 2.8%, Hafnarfjordur Free Church 2%, Asatru Association 1.2%, The Independent Congregation.9%, other religions 4% (includes Zuist and Pentecostal), none 6.7%, other or unspecified 11.3% (2018 est.) At first, it was maintained the right for people to sacrifice to the old gods in private, though it was punishable if witnesses were provided. After a legal struggle, the original directors were reinstated as the leaders of the movement, and by October 2017, after two years of frozen activity, the case was closed allowing the church to dispose of its taxes. The most popular deity was apparently Thor, whom the Icelanders worshipped in the form of high pillars; poets worshipped Odin, as highlighted by Hallfreðr Vandræðaskáld, the Landnámabók and the Eyrbyggja saga. Skaptadóttir, UD 2004, ‘Mobilities and cultural difference: immigrant’s experiences in Iceland’ in Topographies of globalization: politics, culture, language, eds V Ingimundarson, K Loftsdóttir & I Erlingsdóttir, The University of Iceland Press, Reykjavík pp. Both the missions were unsuccessful: Stefnir violently destroyed temples and ancestral shrines, leading the Althing to enact a law against Christians—who were declared frændaskomm, a "disgrace on one's kin", and could now be denounced—and to outlaw Stefnir, who returned to Norway; Thangbrand, a learnt but violent man, succeeded in converting some important families, but he also had many opponents, and, when he killed a poet—who had composed verses against him—, he was outlawed and he too went back to Norway. [24], Source: UN World Population Prospects[27]. What is then the status of Religion in Iceland nowadays? (2016 est. The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. A royal emissary was sent to uphold the ordinance, and Øgmundur was arrested and died on the way to Denmark. The religion was recognized by the government in 1966, and an Iceland National Spiritual Assembly was elected in 1972. Article 63: All persons have the right to form religious associations and to practice their religion in conformity with their individual convictions. With a rental car, you can visit ice-covered mountains and active volcanoes on the same day.It is one of the most sparsely populated countries on the planet, but also one of the wealthiest and highly developed. In 2017, 10.6% of the population were first-generation immigrants. [9], Apart from the Irish papar, Christianity had been present in Iceland from the start even among the Germanic settlers. It is recorded in the Eyrbyggja saga that as Norway was being Christianised, a pagan temple was dismantled there to be reassembled in Iceland. Institutional opposition to the Reformation had now vanished, so that church properties were secularised and churches and monasteries were plundered. The 12% has made Iceland in the top 10 atheist populations of the world. [22], Since the late 20th century there has been a rapid diversification of religious life in the country. 15–24 years: Another 4% (about 11,471 people) belong to one of 20 different denominations that are registered and recognized by the state. One notable Icelander who has an inherited family name is football star Eiður Smári Guðjohnsen. Population of Iceland 2010-2020, by citizenship Population in Iceland 2012-2019, by degree of urbanization Population by membership in religious and life stance organizations in Iceland … 11.81% (male 20,119/female 20,007) 1.01 male: 1 female The largest religious congregation is the National Church, which has 233,062 or about 66% of the population. Article 62: The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the State Church in Iceland and, as such, it shall be supported and protected by the State. The 18th century was marked by great economic hardship, and by 1801 the population had declined to 47,240. [7], Icelandic landowners (landnámsmenn[8]) were organised into goðorð ("god-word(s)"), religio-political groups under the leadership of a goði ("god-man"). The category of the "unaffiliated" comprises citizens who are not registered as members of any religious organisation. However, it took many decades for Lutheranism to be firmly established in Iceland. Although most Icelanders deplored the persecutions of Jews during the Second World War, they usually refused entry to Jews who were fleeing Nazi Germany, so the Jewish population did not rise much during the war.[34]. From the eleventh century, Icelanders have called the Jews Gyðingar, a derivative of Guð (God).The Gyðinga saga, the Saga of the Jews, was written in the thirteenth century.It is a translation of the First Book of Maccabees and fragments from the writings of Flavius Josephus.. After the event, in 986 Fridrek returned to Saxony while Thorvald embarked for Viking expeditions in Eastern Europe. [6] According to historian Gunnar Karlsson, "migration from Iceland is unique in that most went to Canada, whereas from most or all other European countries the majority went to the United States. Before that, between the 9th and 10th century, the prevailing religion among the early Icelanders (mostly Norwegian settlers fleeing Harald Fairhair's monarchical centralisation in 872–930) was the northern Germanic religion, which persisted for centuries even after the official Christianisation of the state. Iceland's largest ethnic minority comprises Polish immigrants in Iceland. Reykjavik Demographics. As of 2018, the Icelandic population stands at a little over 350,000. under 15 years: Organizers promised those registering with Zuism their church tax would be refunded. [9][10], Immigration to Iceland rose rapidly in the late twentieth century, encouraged by Iceland's accession to the European Economic Area in 1994, its entry into the Schengen Agreement in 2001, and the country's early twenty-first century economic boom. The goðar were part-time priests who officiated ritual sacrifices at the local temple and had some qualities of the Germanic kings; they organised local things and represented them at the Althing. The first consecrated bishop in Iceland was Ísleif Gizursson, who from 1057 to his death in 1080 was the bishop of Skálholt. The "things" were assemblies of free men who governed Germanic societies, and they were led by a holy kingship. Interior of the Lutheran cathedral of Skálholt. Capital Reykjavik Population (2010) 320,000 Annual population growth rate (2000-2010) 1.3% Population gain (2000-2010) 39,000 GDP per capita $36,510 (US) Literacy [3], Since the late 20th century, and especially the early 21st century, religious life in Iceland has become more diverse, with a decline of Christianity, the rise of unaffiliated people, and the emergence of new religions, notably Heathenry, in Iceland also called Ásatrú, which seeks to reconstruct the Germanic folk religion. Jón was a poet of some importance and was married with many children, a usual thing among the clergy in Iceland. This may be amended by law. Bishop Gissur, who was ordained by the Danish bishop Peder Palladius, reorganised the church in his diocese according to Lutheran principles, including the suppression of Catholic ceremonies and the exhortation of clergy marriage. The growth of the fishing industry then created demand for capital, and in 1885 Parliament created the first state bank (Landsbanki). [10] The syncretic attitude of the Icelanders made possible for the Germanic religion to survive and intermingle with Christianity even in later periods. The two bishops, who were not well versed in theology but were men of great power, were in conflict with one another and threatened open conflict. [20] Estimates show that the number of immigrants could be as high as 15% of the total population by 2030.[20]. The first Jews in Iceland were traders. As of 2019, it had 2,841 registered members, or 0.8% of all the Icelanders). [18], Gissur Einarsson died in 1548 and Jón Arason took possession of the Skálholt diocese, even though the clergy opposed him. [19], Since the end of the 19th century, Iceland has been more open to new religious ideas than many other European countries. Iceland Demographics. 1.05 males: 1 female, 25–54 years: [17] For example, Iceland has a higher dropout rate from upper secondary school among young immigrants than the EEA average. [1] The church itself claims a higher number of 277 members in two branches (Reykjavík and Selfoss). The second is the Catholic Church of Iceland, which has 13,799 members or about 4% of the population. Agnostics accept the possibility of faiths being wrong or right and these two ideologies (Atheism and Agnosticism) have been on the rise in the west as technological advancements are being made. [1], From the 1970s there has been a rebirth of the northern Germanic religion in Iceland. However, Denmark did not officially recognize Iceland as its own nation until 1918. ), total population: 13.5% (male 23,190/female 22,659) The most notable phenomenon has been a rise of Neopagan religions, especially Heathenry, in Iceland also called Ásatrú, "truth of the gods", the return to Germanic religion. Icelanders generally tended to syncretism, integrating Jesus Christ among their deities rather than converting to the Christian doctrine. In the autumn of the same year, they asked to be registered, and by the spring of 1973 Ásatrú had become a recognised religion. Today paganism consists of .97% of their population while over 70% of the country is Christian with 12% being Atheist or Agnostic. The Landnámabók gives the names of Christian settlers, including an influential woman named Aud the Deep-Minded. [18] In 1552 the Hólar diocese also accepted the Church Ordinance. Data according to Statistics Iceland, which collects the official statistics for Iceland. More than 3100 (or 1% of the Icelandic population) joined the church. In 2016, 71.6% of the population belonged to the state church (the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland), approximately 5% in free churches, 3.7% to the Roman Catholic Church, approximately 1% to the Ásatrúarfélagið (a legally recognized revival of the pre-Christian religion of Iceland), approximately 1% to Zuism, 8% in unrecognized or unspecified religious groups, and 19% do not belong to any religious group. Kristín Loftsdóttir, “The Country without Racism: Multiculturalism and Colonial Identity Formations in Iceland.” Social Identities 17 (2011): 11–25. In late 2015, the Board of Directors of the Zuist Church was hijacked by people who were unrelated to the movement, and under the new leadership Zuism was turned into a medium for a protest against the state church and the Icelandic church tax (sóknargjald). He had to change his name to Ari Singh, as the Icelandic government does not issue citizenship to non-Icelandic first names. The Pew Research Center estimated that the number of Muslims in Iceland was below its 10,000 minimum threshold, and official statistics put the figure at under 1,300, or approximately 0.4% of the total population. The Church of Iceland is supported by the government, but all registered religions receive support from a church tax (sóknargjald) paid by taxpayers over the age of sixteen. 55–64 years: After one day and one night, he decided that, in order to keep peace, the population had to be united under one law and one religion, Christianity, and all the non-Christians among the population would have received baptism. Iceland exported fresh fish to Britain and salted cod to southern Europe, with Portugal an important export market. The original population of the island was of Gaelic and Nordic origin based on genetic analysis and literary evidence from the island's settlement. male: Iceland Urban Population Currently, 94.3 % of the population of Iceland is urban (319,637 people in 2019) Population Density. Immigrants and persons with foreign background 2017, "Efnahagslegt sjónarhorn á móttöku flóttamanna", "Seasonality of birth rates in agricultural Iceland", "University pathways of urban and rural migration in Iceland", "Aldrei lægra hlutfall Íslendinga í Þjóðkirkjunni – Zúistar nærri 1 prósent þjóðarinnar", "Population projection by main indicators 2013–2061", "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations", https://web.archive.org/web/20070927194106/http://bella.mrn.stjr.is/utgafur/skolenska.pdf, A 2012 report by the Ministry of Welfare on migration to and from Iceland 1961–2011, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Demographics_of_Iceland&oldid=991290180, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Natural increase from January–September 2019 =, Natural increase from January–September 2020 =, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 08:27. Olaf of Norway sent the Icelandic population not practicing members. [ 1 ] Lutheran... 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