The strong morphological similarities suggest a close relationship between S. pharaonis and S. ramani, but the nature of this relationship is unknown. Our central Indian Ocean subclade may be Norman's S. pharaonis III, although we found that S. pharaonis individuals collected along the west coast of India from as far north and west as Veraval are also members of this clade (i.e. Upload image Relationships among these clades remain somewhat poorly supported except for a clade comprising the Iranian clade, the western Pacific clade and the central Indian Ocean clade. pharaonis’ may consist of several species, but morphological work is needed to clarify species-level taxonomy within this complex. 3), and members of the western Indian Ocean subclade bear distinctly different rhodopsin sequences than nearly all other S. pharaonis sampled in our study. Size: 18 inches (45 cm) ... Genus: Sepia. Though molecular genetic data are scarce for many invertebrate fisheries in part due to the small, local scale of many such fisheries (Thorpe, Sole-Cava & Watts, 2000), several cephalopods are targets of large-scale fisheries, and population genetic studies have been published for a number of these (e.g. (2004). (2007), five strongly supported geographically delimited clades are evident on both the mtDNA and three-gene phylogenies. Partition abbreviations are as follows: C, COI; R, rhodopsin; C1, COI position 1; C2, COI position 2; C3, COI position 3; R12, rhodopsin position 1 + position 2; R3, rhodopsin position 3. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Several phylogenetic analyses were performed for the COI and rhodopsin data individually and for three combinations of data – one consisting of the combined mtDNA data only (i.e. Furthermore, within the Indian Ocean, archipelagos with extensive reef systems such as Seychelles, Mauritius and the Maldives also seem to have been sampled more frequently than the continental shelves of south Asia and northeastern Africa. Ref:, Length: 33cm Depth: 0-130m Found: Mediterranean, Indo-West Pacific Eats: crustaceans, fish Family: Cuttlefishes Scientific Family: Sepiidae. The pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 (Sepiidae) is a broadly distributed neritic demersal cephalopod species found from East Africa to southern Japan. For each dataset or partition, models were evaluated by using all sites or only variable sites as estimates of sample size (Posada & Buckley, 2004). Anderson et al. (1997) found that a distance of only 30 km of deep ocean severely limits larval dispersal in Pareledone turqueti (Joubin 1905), an Antarctic octopus. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. Prices and download plans . Norman (2000) suggested that S. pharaonis comprises three forms: S. pharaonis (s. s.) (found in the western Indian Ocean from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf; the eastern limit is unknown); S. ‘pharaonis II’ (Japan to the Gulf of Thailand, Philippines and north Australia) and S. ‘pharaonis III’ (Maldives to Andaman Sea coast of Thailand). found during their scuba dive and snorkelling excursions. Customise filters × Customise filters (scroll to see full list) (scroll to see full list) The latter finding suggests that the mtDNA and rhodopsin sequences for N Gulf of Oman 5 are in conflict, and that phylogenetic signal from the mtDNA overwhelmed the signal from the rhodopsin data for this specimen in the combined analyses. Cuttlefish possess the ability to swim in different manners, usually gently rippling their side fins. Both the combined mtDNA phylogeny and the three-gene phylogeny place a specimen denoted on the phylogenies as ‘N Gulf of Oman 3*’ (collected from the Iranian coast of the Gulf of Oman) within the western Indian Ocean clade with strong support. Comparisons with other studies are somewhat compromised by the fact that although numerous phylogeographic studies of Indian Ocean species have been published, the Malay Archipelago, South Africa and Australia have received substantially more attention than the northern Indian Ocean (i.e. While mating, S. pharaonis s. s. males show zebra lines on the third arm pair, while S. pharaonis II males have broken lines and S. pharaonis III males have spots (Norman, 2000). - The postburn-in trees from all four runs were assumed to be independent samples from the posterior probability distribution, and thus were combined to produce a phylogram and a 50% majority-rule consensus tree. Reid et al. Another type of cephalopod is the Pharaoh Cuttlefish. Thermal cycling regimes were as follows: 94° (1 min) – 42° (1 min) – 68° (1:30), repeated for 35 cycles, with a 7-min terminal extension step at 72° (COI); 94° (1 min) – 42° (1 min) – 72° (1:30), repeated for 35 cycles, with a 7-min terminal extension step at 72° (rhodopsin). There is some morphological and behavioural evidence that S. pharaonis may be a complex of closely related species. However when in danger, the cuttlefish sucks water into their body cavity and expels it through a funnel like extension on the underside of the body, causing a backward propulsion enabling the cuttlefish to escape from predators. In light of this, we believe that specimens from the type localities would probably be members of our western Indian Ocean subclade. the coasts of south Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa). This investigation of S. pharaonis phylogeography may shed some light on biogeographic patterns of neritic animals in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. It was expertly cleaned in Vietnam, so it is all ready to use in recipes without further work, except to dismantle and cut as needed for your recipe. Finally, Norman's S. pharaonis II appears to comprise at least two genetically distinct groups: our western Pacific subclade (comprising samples from Taiwan and the Gulf of Thailand) and our northeastern Australia subclade. Maturation, fecundity and seasonality of reproduction of two commercially valuable cuttlefish, The preservation of the shells of Sepia in the middle Miocene of Malta, Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Molecular and morphological analyses of the cuttlefish, A synopsis of Sepiidae outside Australian waters (Cephalopoda: Sepioidea), A synopsis of Sepiidae in Australian waters (Cephalopoda: Sepioidea), Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of hummingbirds: Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data and selection of an appropriate partitioning strategy, MacClade: analysis of phylogeny and character evolution, Version 4.08, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA, Cryptic failure of partitioned Bayesian phylogenetic analyses: lost in the land of long trees, Performance-based selection of likelihood models for phylogeny estimation, First multi-generation culture of the tropical cuttlefish, Enlightenment of old ideas from new investigations: more questions regarding the evolution of bacteriogenic light organs in squids, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of combined data, Temporal congruence and cladistic analysis of biogeography and cospeciation, Clocks, clades and cospeciation: comparing rates of evolution and timing of cospeciation events in host-parasite assemblages, Testing hypotheses of population structuring in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using the common cuttlefish, Selecting the best-fit model of nucleotide substitution, Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian approaches over likelihood ratio tests, Evolutionary disequilibrium among Indo-Pacific corals, Generation times and the Quaternary evolution of reef-building corals, Cephalopods of the world. A similar pattern has been found in Lunella coronata, a gastropod found on rocky shores from southeastern Africa through the Gulf of Oman to the western Pacific (Williams et al., in review). 5 kg, and for females 50 cm and 2 kg in … unpubl.). Attempts to untangle this putative species complex using molecular genetic data have been limited to a study by Anderson et al. Cephalopod researcher Dr. James Wood sums it up well; “Octopuses, squids, cuttlefish and the chambered nautilus belong to class Cephalopoda, which means ‘head foot”. Codes in parentheses refer to original studies (B, Bellingham, Morris & Hunt, 1998; Murphy, J.M., Hernandez, M.N., Pereles-Raya, C. and Balguerias, E. Sequences for S. madokai have been removed from GenBank subsequent to the completion of the analyses described in this paper. Reid et al. N Gulf of Oman 3* grouped strongly with the western Indian Ocean subclade on all phylogenies, while N Gulf of Oman 5 grouped with the Iranian subclade (as expected) in the mtDNA and three-gene phylogenies (Figs 2, 3), but with the western Indian Ocean subclade on the rhodopsin phylogeny. An outer shell once covered the cuttlefish's … Sepia ramani is a member of the S. pharaonis species complex, though one of our S. ramani samples may represent an additional, previously unsampled subclade within the complex. Video by Japan Ethological Society & Springer Japan. This finding was foreshadowed by Reid et al. Appropriate partitioning schemes for the two multigene datasets were chosen using the AICc (a second-order correction of the Akaike Information Criterion) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), following McGuire et al. As Anderson et al. Our analyses suggest that S. ramani is part of the S. pharaonis species complex, but that S. ramani 22 may represent a distinct subclade within the complex. To facilitate the analysis, 100 bootstrap pseudoreplicates were analysed, with the maximum number of trees retained set to 10,000 (maxtrees = 10,000) and a heuristic search with the following parameters: 100 random-addition-sequence replicates (addseq = random nreps = 100), holding 10 trees at each step (hold = 10), retaining only 100 trees of length ≥1 per replicate (nchuck = 100, chuckscore = 1). (2007) noted, the type localities of S. pharaonis are both in the Red Sea (near El-Tor in the Sinai in the northern Red Sea and near Massawa in Eritrea along the west coast of the Red Sea). In light of this, we suggest that the binomen S. pharaonis be restricted to the western Indian Ocean subclade. The pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 (Sepiidae) is a broadly distributed neritic demersal cephalopod species found from East Africa to southern Japan. Upon topological convergence, the first 25% of trees from each run were removed as burn-in. In addition, S. pharaonis s. s. spawns between August and October, while S. pharaonis II (in Hong Kong) spawns from March through May and S. pharaonis in India spawns all year round (Norman, 2000). In this study, we build upon Anderson et al. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science, MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models, The monsoon circulation of the Indian Ocean. The western Indian Ocean clade revealed by Anderson et al. (2007): 1, Red Sea; 2, Gulf of Aden; 3, Persian Gulf (Iran); 4, northern Gulf of Oman (Iran); 5, southern Gulf of Oman (Oman); 6, Veraval; 7, Kochi; 8, Tuticorin; 9, Vishakapatanam; 10, Phuket; 11, Prachuap; 12, Chumphon; 13, Taiwan; 14, Gulf of Carpentaria; 15, northeast Queensland. The 68 taxa three-gene analysis was only run under the gene and codon partitioning scheme, and included the full set of taxa used in the combined mtDNA analyses. Widespread Mediterranean, Indo-West Pacific In this case, our samples seem to have come from at or near a boundary between two subclades, and we are detecting either migrants or individuals resulting from crosses or backcrosses between members of these two subclades (e.g. Created to help individuals around the world identify tropical fish Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Mollusca Class: Cephalopoda Order: Sepiida Family: Sepiidae Genus: Sepia (Subgenus: Sepia ) Species: officinalis It is possible that Pleistocene glaciations also played a role in the divergence between the central Indian Ocean and western Pacific clades of S. pharaonis, though the current lack of divergence time information for the S. pharaonis complex limits our ability to test hypotheses of causality. Relationships among these clades are somewhat poorly resolved, although there is some support for a clade comprising the Iranian clade, the western Pacific clade and the central Indian Ocean clade (BPP = 0.74, MPBS = 94%). Cuttlefish gather in their hundreds of thousands to spawn. Pharaoh Cuttlefish - New hatchling. The phylogeny reveals five strongly supported subclades within S. pharaonis: a western Indian Ocean clade (Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and the northeast coast of Oman), a northeastern Australia clade (with a representative of ‘S. (2007). They feed by catching their prey by two powerful tentacles which shoot out from beneath the creatures eyes. Sign in Sign up for FREE Prices and download plans πία, sēpía, cuttlefish. Partitioning by gene and codon resulted in four data partitions for the combined mtDNA dataset (a 16S rRNA partition and a partition for each COI codon position) and six for the three-gene dataset (16S rRNA, COI positions 1, 2 and 3, rhodopsin positions 1 + 2 and rhodopsin position 3; rhodopsin first and second codon positions were pooled due to low levels of variation). A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and a fragment of the rhodopsin gene were amplified using universal metazoan COI PCR primers (Folmer et al., 1994) and cephalopod-specific rhodopsin PCR primers (Strugnell et al., 2005), and HotStar Master Mix (QIAGEN) following manufacturer's protocols (half-reactions). Collection locality and GenBank accession data for all specimens of Sepia pharaonis complex. There are hints that this complex may consist of more than three species; for example, hectocotylus morphology differs between males collected in Japan and Australia (Reid et al., 2005). Our results show that Sepia ‘pharaonis’ is a complex of at least five subclades (and perhaps six, depending on the status of S. ramani). One group of closely related individuals (the central Indian Ocean subclade) is distributed across the central Indian Ocean along the east and west coasts of India and the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand; in contrast, another group seems to be restricted to the Persian Gulf and northern Gulf of Oman (the Iranian subclade). File:Partes de la sepia.ogv. (2007) and using equations listed in Posada & Buckley (2004). The Pharaoh Cuttlefish is found in the Mediterranean, Indo-West Pacific region growing up to 33cm in length. COI sequences from this study plus 16S rRNA sequences from Anderson et al., 2007) and two ‘three-gene analyses' (comprising all COI, 16S rRNA and rhodopsin sequences generated here and in Anderson et al., 2007). Alignment of the COI and rhodopsin sequences was performed by eye in Se-Al v. 2.0a11 (Rambaut, 2002). (2005) depict the distribution of this species as including the coast of Sri Lanka and the southwest coast of India, but this appears to be an error (A. Reid, personal communication). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. The pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) is a large cuttlefish species that may exceed 40 cm in mantle length and 5 kg in weight. For the three-gene dataset, GenBank data for COI, 16S rRNA and rhodopsin were only available for three outgroup species (two sepiids – Sepia officinalis and Metasepia tullbergi – and one sepiolid, Euprymna scolopes), so two analyses were performed – one in which only these three taxa were used as outgroups and one in which all sepiid and sepiolid taxa used in the combined mtDNA data analyses were used as outgroups. 49, Paris, France, DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates, Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology. (2005) noted that S. pharaonis is the most common species of cuttlefish caught in the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman, the Andaman Sea, the Gulf of Thailand, the Philippines and along the southern coast of China, and Nesis (1987) wrote that “[Sepia pharaonis] is the most important object of the cuttlefish fishery in the northern part of the Indian Ocean and southeastern Asia”. 's (2007) dataset by (1) adding another mitochondrial gene region and a nuclear gene region in an effort to clarify relationships among subclades of S. pharaonis and test monophyly of the S. pharaonis complex, and (2) by expanding the taxon sample to include specimens of S. ramani. The best (lowest) AICc and BIC scores are in bold text. Furthermore, the cuttlebone of S. pharaonis has a distinctive cuplike extension covering the striated zone of the posterior inner cone (Khromov et al., 1998; Norman, 2000), which may allow fossil members of the S. pharaonis complex to be identified. Best-fitting DNA substitution models for each partition were chosen by estimating a neighbour-joining tree for the partition using Jukes–Cantor distances in PAUP*. Data were collected from aquacultured animals using egg masses sampled from around the island and hatched in aquaria during 2010, 2011, … Sepia pharaonis. Sequence data for all outgroups were downloaded from GenBank. Found in shallow waters over sand and seagrass beds of coral and rocky reefs. Depth - 0-130m The initial tree topology does not seem to influence model selection, as long as the tree used is not a random topology (Posada & Crandall, 2001); neighbour joining was used only because it is a fast method to generate a ‘better-than-random’ tree. The status of S. pharaonis is further complicated by the recent description of a new species, S. ramaniNeethiselvan, 2001 that appears to be closely related to S. pharaonis. However, the main spawning season for S. pharaonis in this region is November and December, between the monsoons (Reid et al., 2005) and after the Ras Al Hadd jet has weakened. Ten such analyses were run, with bootstrap support values for each node averaged across all 10 runs. Unfortunately, we lack the samples from the southern or eastern Persian Gulf that would allow us to test this possibility. Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Also included in this clade are the lesser-known cuttlefish (Sepioidea), the Ram's Horn Squid, which has an internal coiled shell and floats head down in the water, and an enigmatic deep water genus called the "vampire squid" (Vampyromorpha). These calculations required estimation of model likelihoods. The rhodopsin phylogeny was poorly resolved due to the low level of variation found in this gene region among the focal taxa (tree not shown), but a monophyletic S. pharaonis comprising two subclades was recovered – one weakly supported subclade [BPP = 0.903, maximum parsimony bootstrap support (MPBS) = 53%] included all specimens collected in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden plus one specimen (‘N Gulf of Oman 5’) collected from the Iranian coast of the Gulf of Oman, and a strongly supported subclade (BPP = 0.990, MPBS = 93%) comprising all other S. pharaonis and S. ramani individuals. The focus on species or species groups that span the boundary between the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean (the ‘marine Wallace's Line’; Barber et al., 2000) is understandable, given the importance of this region in both marine and continental biogeography, but it does not provide much insight into Indian Ocean phylogeography. N Gulf of Oman 5, whose mtDNA haplotype is Iranian but whose rhodopsin sequence appears to be from the western Indian Ocean). Flamboyant Cuttlefish: This species is well-named for the rather bright and exuberant pattern of colors on … Numbers above branches are clade posterior probability (BPP) estimates; numbers below branches are MPBS values. When raised in the laboratory, the maximum recorded size for males is 16.2 cm, and for females 15.5 cm. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Malacological Society of London, all rights reserved, Assessing the systematics of Tylodinidae in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean: resurrecting, Environmental correlates of distribution across spatial scales in the intertidal gastropods, Feeding and digestion periodicity of Manila clam, Ontogenesis of the digestive gland through the planktotrophic stages of, High cryptic diversity in the kleptoparasitic genus, About the Malacological Society of London,, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, HM164519, HM164524, HM164525, HM164527, HM164536, HM164489, HM164491, HM164492, HM164532, HM164533, Copyright © 2020 The Malacological Society of London. In analyses of the partitioned datasets, all model parameters except topology and branch lengths were unlinked across partitions. Phylogenetic analyses of a dataset comprising all three-gene regions revealed a monophyletic S. pharaonis complex consisting of a western Indian Ocean clade, a northeastern Australia clade, a Persian Gulf/Arabian Sea (‘Iranian’) clade, a western Pacific clade and a central Indian Ocean clade. Want to share your pictures? Males are larger than females, the maximum recorded size for males is 80 cm and. Neethiselvan (2001) also noted that some morphometric characters (cuttlebone width, inner cone length and tentacular club length) could be useful for distinguishing between the species, but there is some overlap between the two species in all of these characters. Cuttlefish, Octopus & Squid. The cuttlefish's flat body allows it to live and hover near the ocean bottom where it finds its favorite food. Previous morphological and genetic work (the latter based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene) suggested that S. pharaonis is a species complex, but relationships within the complex remained unresolved. Genus: Sepia . The taxonomic status of S. ramani (as well as usage of the binomen S. pharaonis itself) hinges on the taxonomic status of the five unnamed subclades, and this cannot be fully addressed without detailed morphological and morphometric work, preferably coupled with additional genetic data collection to provide a link with our study. For both the combined mtDNA dataset and the three-gene dataset, the AICc and BIC values were lowest for the ‘by gene and codon position’ partitioning scheme, indicating that this was the best-fitting partitioning scheme of those evaluated for these data (Table 3). The harmonic mean of likelihood values from the stationary phase of each analysis (calculated using the ‘sump’ command in MrBayes v. 3.1.2) was used as an estimate of the model likelihood, following Nylander et al. From FishBase, you are looking for information on human uses of the species 'Sepia pharaonis'. To our knowledge, no fossil cuttlebones attributable to S. pharaonis have been found. FYI: Shown here only for identification only. The relationships among the S. pharaonis subclades are still not fully resolved, but some inferences can be made. To clarify these relationships, we have sequenced an additional mitochondrial gene region (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and a nuclear gene region (rhodopsin) from over 50 specimens from throughout the range of S. pharaonis. All individuals had unique COI sequences, but several individuals had identical rhodopsin sequences; there were only 20 unique rhodopsin sequences. Despite the commercial importance of S. pharaonis, very little has been published on the phylogeography or population genetics of this species, presumably due in part to its broad geographic distribution. They are also able to shoot a cloud of black ink at predators when threatened. For the combined mtDNA dataset, all sepiids for which both COI and 16S rRNA sequences were available in GenBank were included as outgroups to provide as robust a test as possible for S. pharaonis monophyly (Table 2). Preliminary analyses suggested that the default temperature (T = 0.2) resulted in very few state swaps between chains, and some analyses were succumbing to the ‘long tree’ problem, in which estimated branch lengths were unreasonably long, as described by Marshall (2010) and Brown et al. Sepia ramani is a species that is morphologically very similar to S. pharaonis, and there is some question regarding its status as a distinct species. Finally, it must be noted that representatives of only 14 sepiid species were used as outgroups in this study. Sepia pharaonis is a neritic demersal species so direct dispersal across the Gulf of Oman seems unlikely. Photography By: Ramin Ketabi Editor:Shahla Jamili (IFSRI) The. However, currents might facilitate rare dispersal events across the Gulf of Oman at certain times of the year. The Pharaoh cuttlefish ranks high among the fish export list from Oman. Determining the effects of stocking density and temperature on growth and food consumption in the pharaoh cuttlefish, The rhodopsin gene of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: sequence and spectral tuning, When trees grow too long: investigating the causes of highly inaccurate Bayesian branch-length estimates, Contrasting demographic history and phylogeographical patterns in two Indo-Pacific gastropods, Developing model systems for molecular biogeography: vicariance and interchange in marine invertebrates, Molecular ecology and evolution: approaches and applications, Toward an integrative historical biogeography, The Pleistocene equatorial barrier between the Indian and Pacific oceans and a likely cause for Wallace's Line, UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science, no. Differences in phylogeographic patterns across studies of Indo-Pacific neritic taxa are not surprising, given the substantial differences in life history, ecology and behaviour among these taxa. Length - 33cm Search results from the FishSource database for all stocks and fisheries for this species are available after dismissing this dialog. We generated a total of 46 COI sequences and 43 rhodopsin sequences (Table 1). Conversely, phylogenetic patterns may be concordant across taxa, but these similarities could be due to pseudocongruence, in which similar phylogenetic patterns arise among two or more taxa of different ages that were affected by different vicariant events (Cunningham & Collins, 1994; Donoghue & Moore, 2003). By contrast, the other S. ramani specimen collected from the same area (S. ramani 22) is genetically distinct from all other specimens collected from Indian waters. Copyright © 2020 (2007) and confirmed here corresponds quite well to Norman's S. pharaonis s. s., although we found evidence of a genetic break between the southern and northern Gulf of Oman (see below). Phylogenies recovered in analyses of the COI and rhodopsin datasets were generally topologically concordant with one another and with phylogenies recovered from the combined analyses, so only the results of the analyses of the two dataset combinations (mtDNA and all three genes) will be discussed in detail and shown here. Estimated Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPPs) of clades on inferred trees were interpreted as measures of support. Welcome to FishSource, an online information resource about the status of fish stocks and fisheries. a single substitution model was used for the dataset). 1) and shipped to the first author (F.E.A.) We thank Alonso Córdoba, Stephanie Clutts, Mike Venarsky and Adria Pilsits for assistance with DNA extraction, PCR and sequencing and Associate Editor Suzanne Williams and two anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments and suggestions. Tissue samples from two additional specimens of S. pharaonis and two specimens of S. ramani were collected in Tuticorin, India, in October 2007. tullbergi clade as sister to a monophyletic S. pharaonis complex (an S. pharaonis sequence from GenBank is distantly related to the S. pharaonis sampled in our study, suggesting that the GenBank specimen was misidentified; this sequence was excluded from the three-gene dataset prior to analysis). Despite this bias, there are several phylogeographic studies whose focal taxa are found in many of the same regions where S. pharaonis is found, and comparisons with these studies may be fruitful. As shown by Anderson et al. Fifty per cent majority-rule consensus Bayesian phylogram (branch lengths equal to the estimated number of substitutions per site averaged across all postburn-in trees) for the combined COI + 16S rRNA dataset, depicting the position of Sepia pharaonis haplotypes within Sepiidae and rooted with sequences from two sepiolid taxa. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. *Rerun for 50 million generations. Substitution model abbreviations are as follows: GGI = GTR = G = I, HG = HKY85 = G, HI = HKY85 = I, K = K2P, KG = K2P = G; see Anderson & Swofford (2004) for more information on model abbreviations and original citations for each model. πία, sēpía, cuttlefish. *Latitude and longitude not available, collected near Muscat, Oman. Sepia pharaonis has also been proposed as a promising species for mariculture due to its high spawning success, rapid rate of growth, disease resistance and tolerance of crowding and handling (Minton et al., 2002; Barord, Keister & Lee, 2010). Though we did not obtain samples from the type localities, we did obtain samples from the Yemeni Red Sea coast (340 km east of Massawa) and found that these specimens were members of our western Indian Ocean subclade. The number of parameters, run length (‘length’) in millions of generations, best-fitting models, and AICc and BIC values for different partitioning schemes for the combined mtDNA (16S rRNA + COI) and three-gene (16S rRNA + COI + rhodopsin) datasets. When the baby cuttlefish are fully developed, they can be seen 'swimming' inside the egg and already able to change colors. This research was supported by NSF Grant DEB-0235794 to F.E.A. Also known as the Cephalopod. Adcock et al., 1999; Shaw, Pierce & Boyle, 1999; Kassahn et al., 2003; Shaw et al., 2004; Perez-Losada et al., 2007). In this study, a catalog of the chromatic, postural, and locomotor behaviors was produced for the pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) from coastal waters of Okinawa Island, Japan. Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 Pharaoh Cuttlefish. Furthermore, additional specimens from as-yet-unsampled parts of the range of the S. pharaonis complex must be evaluated, as there may be additional subclades (or species) waiting to be discovered; regions of particular interest are Madagascar, the Philippines, the Yellow Sea (Hwang Hai) and Indonesia. However, two of the four specimens collected in the Gulf of Oman (N Gulf of Oman 3* and N Gulf of Oman 5) showed discordance between clade membership and collection locality. Support values associated with branches are as described for Figure 2. πία, sēpía, cuttlefish. There appear to be consistent reproductive differences among these three forms. Login on the desktop to upload your own pictures! It is commonly hunted in the Philippines, India, and Persia for food. Frank E. Anderson, Ryan Engelke, Kelsey Jarrett, Tooraj Valinassab, Kolliyil S. Mohamed, Pillaru K. Asokan, Parayapanal U. Zacharia, Praulai Nootmorn, Cherdchinda Chotiyaputta, Malcolm Dunning, Phylogeny of the Sepia pharaonis species complex (Cephalopoda: Sepiida) based on analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, Journal of Molluscan Studies, Volume 77, Issue 1, February 2011, Pages 65–75, Genetic divergence between Indian and Pacific populations of marine species has been attributed to reductions in gene flow during repeated periods of glaciation over the last 140,000 years, which resulted in lower sea levels, reduced transfer of warm surface water between the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins and increased cold-water upwelling as recently as 18,000 years ago (Potts, 1983, 1984; Fleminger, 1986; Springer & Williams, 1990; Williams et al., 2002). Ref: ramani’ weakly supported as sister to this clade), an Iranian clade (northeastern Persian Gulf and northern Gulf of Oman), a western Pacific clade and a broadly distributed central Indian Ocean clade (west and east coasts of India and the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand). There is generally little evidence of migration of cuttlefish between geographic regions in our data. (2008) found that phylogeographic patterns can differ substantially between sympatric species, even when those species are congeneric and ecologically similar. The prey is then pulled toward the animal's strong beak and crushed before consuming. Customise filters (scroll to see full list) Taxon. The deepest divergence within the S. pharaonis complex is between the western Indian Ocean clade and the rest of the complex. Multiple data partitioning schemes were tested for Bayesian analyses of the separate and combined datasets. Later, when the researchers were conducting more experiments on cuttlefish hunting, the behavior appeared again. Have a photo you want identified? A topological similarity criterion (the average standard deviation in partition frequency values across independent runs) was used to automatically assess convergence of the runs. The broad coastal distribution of this species across biogeographic zones, coupled with the high incidence of cryptic speciation in commercially fished marine invertebrates (including some cephalopods; Yeatman & Benzie, 1994), suggests the presence of multiple stocks. Abbreviation: ∼, approximate values denoting collections from several sites in close proximity to one another. Population genetic status of the western Indian Ocean: what do we know? COI and rhodopsin sequences obtained in this study were combined with all available sepiid 16S rRNA, COI and rhodopsin sequences in GenBank ( as of 17 February 2009. Sepia ramani could be a close relative of the S. pharaonis complex, it could be a genetically distinct subclade (or species) within that complex or it could represent aberrant specimens of S. pharaonis. They usually … Rhodopsin sequences for E. scolopes, M. tullbergi and S. officinalis are from different individuals than the mitochondrial sequences. Only 10 of 523 sites for rhodopsin were variable within S. pharaonis (all but one of these sites were at the third codon position) and only seven of these sites were parsimony-informative. Norman (2000) did not distinguish Iranian S. pharaonis from his S. pharaonis s. s., and a photo in Norman (2000: 71) of a mating pair of S. pharaonis from Dubai (in the southern Persian Gulf) is used to demonstrate the zebra lines on the third arms that are supposedly diagnostic for S. pharaonis s. s. If S. pharaonis s. s. is equivalent to our western Indian Ocean subclade, this photo suggests that the Persian Gulf may be home to members of both our Iranian subclade and our western Indian Ocean subclade. in 80–100% EtOH as part of an earlier study (Anderson et al., 2007). [Pharaoh Cuttlefish; Sepia pharaonis] The photo specimen to the the left was the same type of Cuttlefish pictured in the previous paragraph, but viewed from the bottom. All hope is not lost, however, because sepiids possess a calcified structure that would seemingly be amenable to fossilization – the cuttlebone. Both specimens of S. ramani are members of the S. pharaonis complex, but their mtDNA haplotypes are not closely related – one is a member of the central Indian Ocean clade, while the other is rather distantly related to the northeastern Australia clade. The geographic regions in question are adjacent to one another; one member of the western Indian Ocean subclade (S Gulf of Oman 1) was collected from the southern coast of the Gulf of Oman, while the Iranian specimens (N Gulf of Oman 2, 3, 4 and 5) were collected about 230 km to the northeast, on the opposite side of the Gulf of Oman. Fifty per cent majority-rule consensus Bayesian phylogram for the combined three-gene (COI + 16S rRNA + rhodopsin) dataset for the Sepia pharaonis complex. Scientific name Scientific name (unprocessed) Subspecies Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Scientific name (unprocessed) Subspecies Species Genus … Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), Phylogenetic relationships among major species of Japanese coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using three mitochondrial DNA sequences, Exploited marine invertebrates: genetics and fisheries, Morphology and late quaternary sedimentation in the Gulf of Oman Basin, Patterns of speciation and dispersal along continental coastlines and island arcs in the Indo-West Pacific turbinid gastropod genus, The marine Indo-West Pacific break: contrasting the resolving power of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, Phylogeny of selected Sepiidae (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) on 12S, 16S, and COI sequences, with comments on the taxonomic reliability of several morphological characters, © The Author 2010. The Gulf of Oman ranges from 60 km (at the Strait of Hormuz) to 370 km wide (from Ras Al Hadd, Oman to Gwadar Bay, Pakistan) and the Gulf of Oman basin is about 3,400 m deep (Uchupi, Swift & Ross, 2002). Within the western half of the Indian Ocean, three S. pharaonis clades were found, with a possible boundary between the Iranian clade and the western Indian Ocean clade in the Gulf of Oman. Human food fish. A total of 141 out of 684 sites for COI were variable and 109 of these were parsimony-informative within Sepia pharaonis. Investigations using metazoan 18S rDNA, Stock assessment of cuttlefish off the coast of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Journal of Shimonoseki University of Fisheries. Sperm … əl‚fish] (invertebrate zoology) An Old World decapod mollusk of the genus Sepia; shells are used to manufacture dentifrices and cosmetics. Map showing the type localities for Sepia pharaonis (*) and sampling localities, modified from Anderson et al. The Bayesian consensus phylogram does not clearly support monophyly of the S. pharaonis complex; sequences from Metasepia tullbergi and S. lycidas are part of a polytomy that includes all S. pharaonis specimens sampled in this study, although one resolution of this polytomy would have the S. lycidas/M. Recovery of a sister pair consisting of the Western Pacific clade and the Central Indian Ocean clade in the S. pharaonis complex, though weakly supported (BPP = 0.94, MPBS < 50%), is consistent with numerous other studies that have found similar sister species or population pairs, with one species (or population) in the Indian Ocean and the other in the Pacific Ocean (Williams et al., 2002 and citations therein; Reid et al., 2006). For the 16S rRNA dataset, the data were not partitioned (i.e. The western Indian Ocean subclade appears to be sister to all of the other subclades (Fig. (2007) found that S. pharaonis comprises five distinct clades: a western Indian Ocean clade (Gulf of Aden and Red Sea), a northeastern Australia clade, an Iranian clade (northern Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf), a central Indian Ocean clade (India and the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand) and a western Pacific clade. Although our data do not allow us to determine the precise location of boundaries between phylogeographic units, it is clear that the regions where different clades are found differ substantially in size. Cuttlefishes. Chambered nautiluses and sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae. A pharaoh cuttlefish pretends to be a hermit crab, raising its front legs to look like eyestalks and appearing to walk on the bottom of the tank. Surprisingly, it does not group with the central Indian S. pharaonis subclade; it groups with the northeastern Australia subclade, although it is quite distinct even from the latter subclade. (2007), however, in recovering moderate support for monophyly of the Sepia pharaonis complex, including a previously unsampled species (S. ramani), and in clarifying relationships among these five clades.